Traumatic brain injuries result from a significant blow to the head or from the whiplash-like effect that occurs in vehicular accidents when the body and brain go from traveling very fast to a crashing stop. An injury to the brain or skull resulting from external trauma may cause various degrees of brain injury. These range from a mild concussion to a deep coma.

According to Michael O’Dell, medical director of Southside Hospital’s Regional Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Bay Shore, New York, bruising, bleeding, swelling, and an abnormal accumulation of fluid can cause irrevocable damage to the areas of the brain that control memory, behavior, attention, movement, sensation and language.